Seed Drill Farming Of Paddy: Simple direct sowing technology
For the success of Direct Sowing Technique, it is very important to adopt its right methods and sowing at the right time.
Direct sowing technology of paddy saves 20 percent irrigation and labour. That is, higher production of paddy at lower cost and higher earnings. This technique also improves the health of the soil, as the residue of the previous crop reaches the field itself and increases the amount of organic matter present in it. With this technique, the paddy crop is also ready for ripening, 10 to 15 days in advance. Direct sowing of paddy in Kharif season, 10-12 days before the onset of monsoon proves to be very useful.
Traditionally, paddy cultivation has been going on for centuries, but in the current era of new techniques and mechanization, the modern technology of direct sowing is not the answer, because it saves 20 percent irrigation and labour. This clearly means higher production of paddy and higher earnings at lower cost. Soil health would also be improved by the direct sowing technique of paddy. But for the success of direct sowing technique, it is very important to adopt the right methods and sowing at the right time.
There is only one challenge with the direct sowing technique of paddy that it is high in weeds in the field. Therefore, when the advanced machines useful in direct sowing of paddy were not available and extensive weed management techniques were also not available, it was very difficult to adopt the direct sowing technology of paddy. But now advanced varieties of seed drill machines and effective weedicides are available, so farmers should take full advantage of them.
Benefits of direct sowing of paddy
Direct sowing of paddy through seed drill saves time and labour in plowing and field preparation. Paddy crop also gets ripe 10 to 15 days in advance. This gives farmers more time to prepare for the next crop and makes it easier to adopt crop rotation. The erosion of the fertile layer of the soil is reduced by the seed drill method. The ability to withstand sudden drought in this technique is also much higher.
Choose the right seed for direct sowing
Like any advanced and scientific technology, it is very important to choose the right variety of seeds before cultivating paddy by direct sowing. For this, suitable seeds should have such qualities that the plants are fast growing in the early stages after sowing and which do not require much irrigation. Apart from this, it is very important to do every activity like seed rate, depth of seed sowing, sowing time, seed treatment and weed control properly for a good crop of paddy. With this higher yield, cost, water and labour expenses will be saved.
Improved Rice Varieties: JR 201, Pusa Sugandha 3, Pusa Sugandha 5, Kranti, Sonam, Pusa Basmati, MTU 1010, Tulsi, Vandana, Pant 4, MR 219, WGL 32100, JGL 3844, HMT, Shabnam, Govinda, Dubraj and Vishnubhog.
Hybrid rice varieties: NPH 567, NPH 207, SBH 999, Bayer 6129, Bayer 158, JRH-5, Pro Agro-6201, PA 6444 and PHB 711.
Field preparation for direct sowing method
For direct sowing of paddy, leveling of the field should be done with laser leveler. This gives the advantage of uniform seeding depth, good crop setting, growth, weed control and uniform irrigation. Before sowing, irrigating the field should be done so that the moisture in the soil remains safe and there is good accumulation of seeds. If there are weeds in the field then spray glyphosate weed killer. Its 1.5 litres quantity should be mixed with 100 litres of water and used per acre.
Keep in mind that only clean water is used in making glyphosate solution. Use a flat-fan nozzle for spraying. The use of 2 ml of 24-D with glyphosate per litre of water also helps in weed control.
Right time for direct sowing of paddy
Direct sowing of paddy in Kharif season 10-12 days before the onset of monsoon proves to be very useful, as the plants germinate in the meantime. For good germination, the field should be irrigated before sowing or immediately after sowing. This allows the paddy plants to grow sufficiently to withstand the heavy rains after the onset of monsoon and reduces the risk of crop failure if the monsoon season is delayed due to any reason.
Depth and seed rate for direct sowing
Seed depth is very important in direct sowing of paddy. It should be kept 2-3 cm deep from the surface. Sowing at a depth greater or less than this affects seed formation and germination. Most seed drill machines or planters have a device for setting the depth of sowing. The field should be filled after sowing so that the moisture in the soil can be preserved for a long time and there can be good accumulation of seeds. For sowing, if the seeds are of medium size, the seed rate of 15-20 kg per hectare is sufficient, while for large grains, the seed rate should be kept at 20-25 kg per hectare.
Right time for direct sowing of paddy
Direct sowing of paddy in Kharif season 10-12 days before the onset of monsoon proves to be very useful, as the plants germinate in the meantime. For good germination, the field should be irrigated before sowing or immediately after sowing. This allows the paddy plants to grow sufficiently to withstand the heavy rains after the onset of monsoon and reduces the risk of crop failure if the monsoon season is too late for any reason.
Seed treatment in direct sowing of paddy
Seed treatment brings about such biochemical changes in the seed, which facilitates its germination and growth. For this, bactericidal Streptocycline (0.25gm/kg seed), fungicide carbendazim or thiram (2gm/kg seed) and insect repellent thiamethoxam (1 ml/kg seed) should be used. Seeds should be soaked in water 10-12 hours before sowing and dried in a shady place. This improves germination.
Paddy Direct Sowing Techniques and Machines
For sowing such seeds, drill machines should be used so that uniform and accurate quantity of seeds can be delivered to the proper depth in the field. For this, inclined plates, cup-like measure or vertical plate machines should be used. In weed-free fields, the use of ‘Zero Till Planter’ seeding machine with inclined plate or cup-shaped plate has been found to be very successful. But if there is presence of scattered residue in the field, then the following machines are better for direct sowing of paddy.
Turbo Seeder : Turbo seeder can do proper sowing in the field having residue of 8-10 tonne/hectare. A tractor with 50 horsepower is required to operate it.
PCR Planter : In this machine, vertical plates are installed for fixed quantity of seeds of different crops. There are also equipments to operate the sowing row. This machine is suitable for sowing between all types of residues up to 8-10 tonne/hectare. This machine can also be operated with a small tractor having 35 horsepower.
Rotary Disc Drill : It is operated by power take off shaft of tractor. Its rotating disc drives the seeds and fertilizers into small grooves inside the soil, cutting the residue evenly. With this machine, seeds can be sown in scattered and standing residue fields at 7-8 tonnes per hectare.
Double disc cultivator : The end of the disc of this machine touches the ground and the seeds are put in the field by making ‘V’ shaped drains. But due to the low weight of this machine, it does not cut the residue. This often leaves seeds and fertilizers on the surface of the residue. This machine can do sowing in the condition of 3-4 tonne per hectare residue.
Fertilizer management in direct sowing of paddy
The use of organic manure in agriculture has reduced a lot. Now the yield is increased due to the use of more fertilizers. This shows an imbalance in the micronutrients of the soil. That is why if on the basis of soil test, organic manure should also be used along with chemical fertilizers. For direct sowing of the remaining paddy, agricultural experts have found appropriate dosage of 150:60:40 kg of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash per hectare.
At the time of sowing, apply 50 kg DAP and 30 kg Murate of Potash per acre by machine or 75 kg per acre of NPK mixture prepared in the ratio 12:32:16. Use urea @35 kg/acre at the time of sowing, at the time of flowering and at the time of ear formation. For healthy paddy plants, use of zinc or iron sulphate should also be done according to the demand of the crop.
Control of weeds is a major challenge in direct sowing paddy cultivation. But choosing the right cropping sequence, seed variety, doing less tillage and leaving the residue of the previous crop in the field is of great benefit. The following measures can be adopted during the early growth phase of weeds after sowing and before germination.
Pendimethalin (Stamp): It should be applied at the rate of 1 kg per hectare in 500 liters of water for 3 days after sowing according to soil moisture.
Pyrazosulfuron (Saathi): Apply 20 gm per hectare after 12 to 20 days of sowing. This treatment is more effective against moth and broadleaf weeds.
Bispyribac: 15-25 days after sowing @ 25 gm active ingredient/ha (effective against Jhunkhuna, Sami, Motha and other broad leaf weeds).
Penoxsulam: Apply 22.5 gm per hectare after 15 to 25 days of sowing to control bird grass and spider grass.
Spray Fenoxaprop Ethoxysulfuron: (60g+18g/ha) 25 days after sowing and follow instructions. Delayed use of this mixture can damage the paddy crop. This grass is very effective for the weeds of the family.
Azimsulfuron or Ethoxysulfuron: Apply at the rate of 20-25 g or 18 g per hectare after 12-20 days of sowing. It is very effective against moth and broad leaf weeds.
Bispyribac-Azimsulfuron: Apply 12.5gm+17.5gm/ha after 12-20 days of sowing. This mixture is effective in Sawan and Motha affected fields.
Propanyl-Triclopyr: Apply 3kg + 500gm per hectare after 15-25 days of sowing. It is very effective on propanyl family grasses and broad-leafed triclopyr and motha family weeds.
24D: Application of 500 gm per hectare after 10-30 days of sowing is very effective on one year broad leaf weeds.
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