Agriculture and Farming Technology Updates

Brinjal Farming: Know what kind of soil and climate is best to get good yield of brinjal

Know which are the improved varieties of brinjal


India comes second in the world in production of brinjal. 27% of the world’s brinjal is grown in India. Brinjal is grown in an area of ​​5.5 lakh hectares in the country. Eggplant farming is done in all areas except hilly areas. Its cultivation is about 10 percent of the total vegetable production in the state of Jharkhand. The main brinjal growing states in India are West Bengal, Orissa, Karnataka, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

The cultivation of brinjal is more difficult than other crops. It can be cultivated throughout the year. In terms of nutrition, it is considered equivalent to tomato. Vitamin ‘C’ is obtained from the green leaves of brinjal.

Colours and sizes of eggplant 

In brinjal, there is a difference in colour of fruits and size of the plants. Its fruits are mainly purple, white, green, pink and striped in colour. Due to the variation in size, its fruits are round, oval, long and pear-shaped. Varied importance of colour and size of brinjal has been observed according to the region. Round and oval brinjals of purple or pink color are more prevalent in northern India. Green oval brinjal is in high demand in Gujarat. In Jharkhand, round or oval and dark purple and striped green brinjals are more preferred.

In what time and climate should we cultivate brinjal? 

Cultivation of brinjal can usually be done thrice a year. If you sow in February, the plants start bearing fruit in the rainy season. Sowing in June-July is also considered appropriate. From November planting, fruits begin to appear in February. Average temperature of 17 to 21 degree Celsius is most favourable for successful production. When the temperature drops below 17 degrees, the growth of crop is severely affected.

What type of soil should be used for the cultivation of brinjal? 

It can be cultivated in all types of land with good drainage. By the way, cultivation of brinjal is considered best in loamy soil. Heavy soils, which have a sufficient amount of organic matter, are also suitable for that. The pH value of land should be between 5.5-6.6. It is necessary to have proper management of irrigation. The land of Jharkhand has been found most suitable for the cultivation of brinjal.

For the seed of brinjal, a fruit should be selected and left to ripen after putting some marks on it. The fruits are ready for first harvest in about 120-130 days after sowing the seeds. The fruits are picked at an interval of 8-10 days. The average yield of brinjal is 20 to 30 tonnes per hectare.

Brinjal Farming
Right to left : (Swarna Shakti, Swarna Shyamli, Arka Avinash) Image Credit: Vikaspedia

Improved varieties of eggplant

Swarna Shyamli 

It is a ground borne bacterium, wilt resistant variety. The fruits of this variety are round, green in colour. The fruits have white stripes on them. Harvesting of fruits start 35-40 days after transplanting. Its popularity is more in the plateau areas of Chota Nagpur of Chhattisgarh. The yield potential of Swarn Shyamali variety is 45 to 60 tonnes per hectare.

Swarna Shakti 

It is an excellent hybrid variety. The length of its plants is about 70-80 cm. The fruits of this variety are long, bright purple in colour. The average weight of the fruit is between 150 and 200 grams. Swarna Shakti variety gives 40 to 50 tonnes per hectare yield.

Arka Avinash 

It is a high quality bacterial scorch resistant variety. It has been developed at IIHR, Karnataka by crossbreeding Arka Kusumakar X IIHR-3. Its plants are tall and spreading in nature. The fruits of this variety are green, long and fleshy. It takes about 115 days to get ready. Arka Avinash variety yields 40 to 42 tonnes per hectare.

Pusa Kranti 

This variety has been developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute. Its plants are tall and spreading in nature. The leaves of this variety are long, narrow and appear green in colour. Its fruits are 15 to 20 cm long, attractive dark purple in colour. The yield potential of Pusa Kranti is 28 to 32 tonnes per hectare.

Pusa Purple Long

The plant of this variety is semi-erect and of low height. The fruit of this variety is shiny, light purple in colour. Its fruit is 25 to 30 cm long, smooth and tender. It takes 100 to 110 days for this variety to mature. The yield potential of Pusa Purple Long is 30 to 35 tonnes per hectare. 

Other varieties of brinjal recommended by ICAR – Pusa Bhairav, Pusa Anmol (H), Pusa Hybrid 5 (Tall), Pusa Hybrid 6 and 9 (Round), Arka Sheel, Arka Shirish, Arka Kusumkar, Arka Navneet (Hybrid), Arka Nidhi, Arka Keshav and Arka Neelkanth. 

Also Read: Variety of beans: Increased crop production from zorin beans, this purple variety is climate friendly

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