Agriculture and Farming Technology Updates

Cultivation of Dhingri mushroom in pots

Know, how milky white mushroom of Dhingri species can be grown in earthen pots?

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From the point of view of farmers, there are three main features of mushroom cultivation. Firstly, it starts yielding in just 20 to 30 days after sowing and secondly, it fetches good market price and thirdly, mushroom earns quickly like cash crops. For these three reasons, more and more progressive farmers are adopting mushroom cultivation. Many varieties of mushrooms are produced in India. ‘Dhingari’ is one of its most popular varieties, because the scientist of ICAR-DMR (Directorate of Mushroom Research) located in Solan, Himachal Pradesh, has adapted the climate of most of the states of the country for the cultivation of Dhingri species of mushroom. found suitable.

New technology of mushroom cultivation 

ICAR-DMR has also developed a new technique of mushroom cultivation in earthen pots. In fact, in Indian rural life, pots have access to every household. In a large area of the country, it is customary to drink water from matkas and to use new matkas every year in place of old ones. Pots have been used a lot in all Teej festivals and religious activities. Often the pots go waste after the main event. But if these waste pots are collected and used for Dhingri mushroom cultivation, then they can become a good source of income.

Dhingri mushroom cultivation can be done throughout the year 

Experts Pawan Kumar Panwar, S.K. According to Bairwa and Surendra Singh, at least 32 species of Dhingri mushroom are found in the world. Out of this, 16 species of mushrooms are commercially produced. Dhingri occupies the third place in world mushroom production after button mushroom and shiitake mushroom. Indian climate is also very favorable for Dhingri mushroom. Here different species of Dhingri can be cultivated throughout the year.

However, till some time ago, the yield of Dhingri mushroom was available only in summer i.e. from April to September. But then the study revealed that while some species of Dhingri are suitable for summer, there are many which give good production in winter in temperature of 14 to 20 degree Celsius. In this way, if the species of Dhingri is selected according to the season, its yield can be obtained throughout the year. While different species of Dhingri are different in appearance, their taste is also different and the temperature has to be kept different to grow them.

Advanced and scientific method of growing Dhingri mushroom in pots 

Due to its milky white colour, ‘Pleurotus Florida’ species of Dhingri mushroom is in great demand. The climate of 18 to 22 degree Celsius and 80 to 85 percent humidity is most favorable for this species of mushroom. But this type of climate does not last throughout the year, so it is difficult to grow it outside a controlled environment. There is an easy solution to this challenge – Dhingri mushroom cultivation in pots. This can give good yield even in the summer season, because the temperature in and around the pots is lower than the outside temperature by 10 to 12 degree Celsius and sufficient moisture is also maintained in the pots.

Dhingri mushroom

Preparation for growing Dhingri mushroom in pots 

First of all, old pots should be treated with 4 percent formalin solution and covered with polythene sheet for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the polythene sheet should be removed and the pots should be kept in the open air for the next 12 hours so that the smell of formalin comes out of them. The next day, with the help of a drill machine, holes of 5 to 7 mm diameter should be made in the treated pots at a distance of 10 to 12 cm, according to the size of the pot.

Potting medium preparation 

Agricultural residues coming out of farm barns can be used for the production of Dhingri mushroom. But such residue should be dry and mold free. As soon as the pots are treated with formalin solution, the work of preparing medium or nutritious food should be started for them. Wheat straw and paddy straw are the most popular medium for this. They just have to be treated and made suitable for growing Dhingri mushroom. So that the harmful bacteria present in it are destroyed. 

Dhingri mushroom

Straw treatment method

In its simplest and most popular method, the straw is sterilized with fungicide chemicals. For this, 12 to 15 kg straw or straw cake is soaked in 90 liters of water in a tub of 200 liters. Then a solution of 7.5 grams of Bavistein and 125 ml of formalin is prepared in 10 liters of water and poured on wet straw from all sides of the tub and covered with a plastic sheet. Again, after 16 to 18 hours, the treated straw is taken out from the tub and spread on a polythene sheet or a paved floor so that the smell of formalin goes away and the moisture content of the straw reduces to about 65%.

Crop cycle and yield of main species of Dhingri grown in mats

Varieties of Dhingri Growing temperature (°C) Time to seed dispersal (days)Time to yield (days)Yield Gram per kg dry medium
Pleurates flabiliatus 22-2612-1418-22600-900
Pleurotus Sajor-Cashew 22-2612-1418-25500-700
Pleurotus sapidus 22-2616-1822-28400-750
Pleurotus eios22-2616-1825-30300-500 
Pleurates ostreatus 12-2220-2530-35300-500
Pleurotus florida18-2216-1825-30300-500

Source – ICAR-DMR (Directorate of Mushroom Research), Solan 

Sowing of Dhingri mushroom in pot

The process of seeding is called spawning. Fresh spawn of suitable species should be used for cultivation of Dhingri mushroom in pots. Keep in mind that this spawn should not be more than 30 days old. It can be obtained from Krishi Vigyan Kendra or seed seller. After this, 10 to 12 kg of wet nutritious food or medium should be used for the quantity of 250 to 300 grams of seed or spawn. After mixing the medium and seeds well in any other utensil, the prepared pots should be filled up to the top and the mouth of the pot should be closed with polythene and the holes made in it with cotton that does not absorb moisture. Then after 5-6 days the mouth of the pot should be opened and the cotton should also be removed from the holes.

मटकों में मशरूम की खेती growing mushroom in pots

Growth and Management of Mushrooms in Pots 

After spawning, the pots are kept in the production room. To keep the pots there, iron or bamboo frame or ladder-like rack or ropes should be used to hang them. About 100 to 125 pots can be kept in the production room of 15 feet length, 10 feet width and 10 feet height. There must be two windows in the production room. Soon, a net of small white fibers ie fungus starts growing from the seeds in the mats. That’s why after 7 to 10 days of spreading the fungus trap, mushroom buds start emerging from the small holes made on the pots.

The growth of mushrooms does not require much light in the production room. But if this room is completely dark, then tube light or bulb light should be given there for 4-5 hours daily. Because for the formation of buds of Dhingri mushroom and its good development, mild light is required. Apart from this, there is a need to sprinkle or spray water on the mats two to three times daily, so that the environment of the production room remains cool. When the heat rises, sprinkling water on the floor and walls reduces the temperature. If the heat is too much, you can also take the help of air cooler to keep the production room cool. When this arrangement is made, in 15 to 20 days, the net of white mushroom starts spreading by coming out of the holes of the pot.

Mushroom production and maintenance in pots 

If the mushroom is getting plucked, do not sprinkle water in such a way that water accumulates on its mushroom. Spraying of water should always be done after plucking the mushrooms. The windows and doors of the room should be kept open for two hours daily, so that the carbon dioxide inside goes out and the proper amount of oxygen remains in the room. If the mushroom of Dhingri is small and the stalk is big, then it should be understood that the mushroom is not getting enough oxygen. If this is the case, the windows should be kept open for a longer period of time.

The amount of carbon dioxide can also be reduced by installing exhaust fans in the production room. Buds of Dhingri mushroom grow to maturity in two to three days. That’s why when the outer edge of the canopy starts turning inwards, it should be understood that the crop has become ready for harvesting. Fully grown mushrooms should be broken by twisting them by hand. Sometimes, the spores of Dhingri can cause an allergic reaction. If sneezing suddenly occurs, one should go to the production room two hours after leaving by tying a thin cloth over the nose and mouth or wearing a mask and opening the doors and windows.

Dhingri mushroom

Cultivation of Dhingri in pot 

The yield of Dhingri keeps coming for 35 to 40 days. The second crop comes after 10-15 days of the first crop. The quantum of yield depends on the quality of medium straw and the species of Dhingri. That’s why 500 to 900 grams of mushroom can be obtained from one kg of dry straw. After plucking the mushroom, the grass attached to its stalk is cut and removed. After this, the mushroom should be packed in polythene with holes and sent to the market. This mushroom can also be dried. For drying, it should be tied in a clean muslin cloth and kept in sunlight or ventilated room for two to three days. Dry dhingri can be kept in sealed containers and it should be soaked in hot water for 10 minutes before use. After this, you can make vegetable or soup etc. 

Also Read: Why Osmanabadi Goat is considered better for meat production?

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