Heat Stress In Dairy Animals: Decline in global milk production due to heat, adopt 10 home remedies for protection
Compared to native breeds, animals of foreign and hybrid breeds have less ability to tolerate heat.
Due to heat and drought, there is a decline in milk production in many countries of the world. Milk production has decreased in many countries, including Australia, France, and America. Due to this, there is a possibility of a shortage of butter for baby milk powder in the coming time. Cows in India, the world’s largest milk-producing country, are troubled by the heat.
Due to the challenges of heat and climate change, the animal husbandry experts of India have also advised cattle rearers to protect their milch animals from extreme heat and heat stroke. This includes an arrangement of shady sheds, coolers, fans, adequate fodder, water, etc., for the animals.
According to a study by the University of Kerala, if the body temperature of cattle increases by 0.5 °C, their daily milk production decreases by 1.8 to 2 liters. In other words, a one degree Celsius increase in temperature can lead to a 5 percent reduction in milk production due to severe heat stress, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure increase in animals. Forage intake can be reduced by up to 35 percent. Indigenous breeds of animals still tolerate high temperatures, but foreign and hybrid breeds cannot tolerate them.
Animal feed decreases due to heat
Most of the areas of the country are facing extreme heat these days. Such weather is also very challenging for milch animals and cattle rearers, as the temperature of 5 to 25 °C is considered most favorable for the maximum productivity of dairy animals. Similarly, when the humidity in the air, i.e., Temperature Humidity Index, is more than 72 points, the effect of heat stress is seen on dairy animals.
Due to the heat, the fertility and milk production of cattle decline, and other aspects of health are also affected. Actually, due to excessive heat, animals reduce their food intake. If there is an increase in their body temperature by one degree, then animals take their diet up to 850 grams less. According to research by the National Library of Medicine, due to increased temperature, animals develop symptoms of hyperemia in the tissues, affecting their milk production.
Effects of heat stress on dairy cattle
Just as humans get sunstroke due to excessive heat, similarly, the thermoregulatory physiological mechanism of animals also gets disturbed. This thermoregulatory system protects the body of animals from excessive cold or excessive heat so that their biological, chemical, physiological and digestive processes continue to run properly. That is why due to severe heat stress, the body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure of animals increase.
Forage intake can be reduced by up to 35 percent. Due to this, the milk production capacity starts falling rapidly and the livestock farmers suffer a lot. Indigenous breeds of animals still tolerate high temperature, but foreign and hybrid breeds have less ability to tolerate it.
Serious dairy crisis in developed countries
ICAR experts have quoted a report by news agency Bloomberg as saying that milch animals are suffering due to the severe heat in Australia for years. Because of this, cattle rearing farmers there are leaving the work of milk production. Due to this, the milk production of that Australia has decreased by about 5 lakh tones, which in 1990 used to have a 16% share in the global dairy trade. Alam is that in the year 2018, this share of Australia decreased to 6 percent. This trend continued even further. As a result, from 1980 to 2020, the number of dairies in Australia decreased by almost a quarter.
Due to increasing drought problem in France like Australia, cows are not getting enough feed. Because of this, the production of special quality paneer has stopped there. There farmers are making new plans to save the cows from heat and drought.
Small farmers are also trying to provide relief to the animals from the heat by installing ACs and coolers. However, despite the costly measures, the farmers are not getting the expected success in saving the cattle from the heat. This is the reason that according to global dairy strategists posted at Roba Bank, the crisis on global food security could deepen due to climate change.
Experts estimate that the US dairy industry will lose $2.2 billion annually due to climate change. Falling milk production in developed countries is clearly telling that they are also suffering the most due to the emission of greenhouse gases. The productivity of developing countries is already low, so the impact of climate change is also relatively less there. But the bell of worry is still ringing for them.
10 home remedies to protect animals from heat
Generally, animal parents know that if the animal is suffering from heat stress then how to treat it? Nevertheless, ‘Kisan of India’ is here telling you about such home remedies which have been recommended by the experts of ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Meerut. It is possible that the animal parents already know about the tips being told ahead. Despite this, they should know that what else is there that they do not know, whereas it is very easy to adopt them?
Daily Remedy: Feed animals at night during summer. Give them easily digestible and good quality feed. Increase the amount of green fodder. Give a mixture of minerals regularly. Like, put salt in their manger. Also add 100 grams of sodium bicarbonate to the fodder. It reduces the adverse effects of heat. Also give them 100 grams of oil daily. If the animals are confined in one place, there should be arrangement for them to drink water at least five times a day.
- Keep animals in a shady place.
- Keep clean water available to the animals at all times.
- Bathe the animals frequently. Feed the cows only when the sun is low or the weather is cold.
- Change the feeding schedule for animals in the summer season.
- Take care of the health of the hooves of the cows.
Home and natural remedies for heat stroke
- Applying onion juice on the body and behind the ears of cows.
- Frying some chopped onions in a pan and adding a little cumin powder and a little sugar to it and giving the prepared mixture to animals.
- Extract the juice of basil leaves and add some sugar to it. Feed this solution to cows.
- Raw mango is also one of the most popular natural home remedy. For this, take some raw mangoes, boil them and then soak them in cold water. Then take the pulp of these mangoes and mix some coriander, cumin, jaggery, salt and black pepper in it. Give this mixture to the animal 3-4 times a day.
- Prepare a paste by adding ground black pepper to a little coconut water. Cool it and apply it on the body of cows.
- Feed them with aloe vera juice mixed with water.
- Grind 10 grams rose petals, 25 grams aniseed, 10 grams gojuva flowers and 10 grams Java flowers together. Then add some sugar or milk to it. Give this mixture to the animal for 3-4 days.
- Taking coriander juice with sugar is a simple natural home remedy.
- Soak some berries in water till they become soft. Then mash the soft berries in water. Filtering it and making a decoction of it and giving it to cows gives relief from heat-borne stress.
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