Agriculture and Farming Technology Updates

Change the fate of crops and fields by adopting Biofertilizers

Scientists have considered biofertilizers not as a substitute for chemical fertilizers, but as a supplement


Bio or organic fertilizers or biofertilizers are also called bacterial fertilizers. Their use increases the fertility of the soil and there is no adverse effect on the health of micro-organisms and the environment. But keep in mind that scientists have not considered biofertilizers as a substitute for chemical fertilizers, but as a supplement. Due to this, about 15 to 25 percent of the requirement of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogen and phosphorous, is met and the cost of farming comes down by reducing the dependence on chemical fertilizers.

What is the role of bacterial fertilizer? 

Biofertilizers are fertilizers in which microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses are present in a living state. These microorganisms have been created by nature to absorb nitrogen present in the atmosphere and transport it to the soil and crops in the form of ammonia. In this way, the bacteria in the biofertilizers are completely natural and are often found in the soil. However, when it is added to the fields as an additional quantity, the density of bacteria present there increases significantly.

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Microorganisms in the bacterial compost convert the insoluble phosphorus and other nutrients already present in the soil into a soluble state so that plants or crops can easily access them. Due to its effect, the germination of seeds is quick. The number of twigs of the plant increases. Flowers and fruits emerge early and become rich in nutrients. In this way the yield is good and the income of the farmer increases.

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Use of organic fertilizer is easy and safe 

The use of organic fertilizers for agriculture is not only easy and safe, but it is also more useful for a better future of agriculture, as its effect remains in the soil for a long time. This benefits the farm, water, environment and health. Biofertilizer also improves the physical and chemical condition of the organic matter found in the soil i.e. its alkalinity. Their use increases the yield of the crop by 10 to 15 percent. In oilseed crops, apart from the yield, the oil found in the yield also increases.

We all know that continuous and unbalanced use of chemical fertilizers has adversely affected our cultivable land and environment. Due to the decrease in the amount of biomass in the soil, its fertile power has been decreasing continuously. The water in our water bodies and on the ground has been contaminated. All these challenges can be controlled to a great extent with the use of biofertilizers. That is why scientists have identified such naturally occurring bacteria and prepared many eco-friendly bio-fertilizers from them.

Biofertilizer varieties 

Rhizobium: It is such an organic fertilizer that plays a boon role for all oilseeds and pulses crops, as they feed symbiotically in the roots of its plants and supply nitrogen to them. After mixing Rhizobium with seeds, after sowing, the bacteria enter the roots and form small nodules. The bacteria living in these knots provide nutrients to the plants by taking up and converting natural nitrogen from the atmosphere in abundance. That is why the more knots of the plants of pulses and oilseed crops like gram, moong, urad, tur, pea, soybean, beans, lentils and groundnut etc., the healthier their plant is and gives more yield.

Azotobacter: Azotobacter converts atmospheric nitrogen into nutrients freely or freely living in the soil and the surface of the roots and makes them available to plants. Azotobacter is used for all non-pulse crops.


Certain microorganisms, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, have the ability to utilize atmospheric nitrogen and provide nutrients to crop plants. This manure is very useful for fodder crops of maize, barley, oats and jowar. Its use increases crop production by 5 to 20 percent. While the yield of bajra can increase by up to 30 percent and that of fodder crops by up to 50 percent.

Blue and Green Algae: The use of blue-green algae as organic fertilizer for rice is very beneficial. It is a storehouse of nitrogen and nutrients for rice. It also helps in reducing the alkalinity of the soil. By using this, about 25 to 30 kg of nitrogen or 50 to 60 kg of urea can be saved per hectare. 

Mycorrhiza: This is a possible association of fungi with the roots of vascular plants. It is helpful in making phosphorus available to the plants faster. It is very beneficial in yield for fruit crops like papaya.

Phosphorus solvent bacteria: It converts the insoluble phosphorus in the soil into soluble phosphorus and makes it available to the plants. It can be used in all crops. Due to this, the deficiency of phosphorus found in the soil is fulfilled.  

Image Credit: ICAR

How to use organic fertilizers? 

Seed treatment method : Make a solution by mixing organic fertilizers with about 100 to 110 grams of jaggery in one litre of water. Spray it well on 20 kg of seeds and make a layer on the seeds. After this dry the seeds in a shady place. When the seeds dry out well, sow immediately after that.

Tuber Treatment Method: In crops like sugarcane, potato, arbi and ginger, the tubers are treated with the use of biofertilizers. Prepare a solution of one kilogram of Azotobacter and one kilogram of phosphorus solvent bacteria in 25 to 30 litres of water. After this, immerse the tubers in the solution for 10 to 15 minutes and then take them out and transplant them.

Plant Root Treatment Method: Plant roots are treated with biofertilizers in vegetable crops, whose plants are planted like tomato, cauliflower, cabbage and onion etc. Take a wide and open vessel for this. Now take 6 to 8 litres of water in it, make a solution by mixing one kilogram of Azotobacter and one kilogram of phosphorus solvent bacteria, about 250 to 300 grams of jaggery. After this, uproot the plants and clean their roots and make bundles of 70 to 100 plants. Now dip them in the solution of organic fertilizer for 10 to 15 minutes and take them out and transplant them immediately.

Soil treatment method : 5 to 10 kg of biofertilizer according to the crop, mix 80 to 100 kg of soil or compost and leave it for 10 to 12 hours. After this mix it in the field at the time of last plowing.

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Precautions in the use of organic fertilizers

According to the experts of Bio Fertilizer, while buying organic fertilizers, the name of the fertilizer, in which crops it can be used and what is the last date fixed for its use, these things must be kept in mind. Special care should also be taken that biofertilizers should always be kept in a shady place, as its quality can be affected by sunlight. Organic fertilizer should not be used after its ‘expiry date’. Choose bio-fertilizers according to the crop, otherwise the production may be affected. The amount of organic manure should be used as per the norms of the crop and the company. 

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